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Fascism-2

The 14 Characteristics of Fascism

by Lawrence Britt Spring 2003

Political scientist Dr. Lawrence Britt recently wrote an article about fascism (“Fascism Anyone?,” Free Inquiry, Spring 2003, page 20). Studying the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia), and Pinochet (Chile), Dr. Britt found they all had 14 elements in common. He calls these the identifying characteristics of fascism. The excerpt is in accordance with the magazine’s policy.

The 14 characteristics are:

  1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism
    Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.
  2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights
    Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of “need.” The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.
  3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause
    The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc
  4. Supremacy of the Military
    Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.
  5. Rampant Sexism
    The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy.
  6. Controlled Mass Media
    Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.
  7. Obsession with National Security
    Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.
  8. Religion and Government are Intertwined
    Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government’s policies or actions.
  9. Corporate Power is Protected
    The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.
  10. Labor Power is Suppressed
    Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed .
  11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts
    Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts is openly attacked, and governments often refuse to fund the arts.
  12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment
    Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations
  13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption
    Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.
  14. Fraudulent Elections
    Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

Copyright © 2003 Free Inquiry magazine

Reprinted for Fair Use Only.

This article was based upon the article “The Hallmarks of Fascist Regime” by Skip Stone, at www.hippy.com/php/article-226.html.

37 Responses to The 14 Characteristics of Fascism

  1. happeh June 17, 2012 at 4:43 pm #

    Doesn’t that list describe the characteristics of every government on the planet?

  2. Jonathon Blakeley June 17, 2012 at 7:07 pm #

    Well it fits UK pretty well. perhaps one could argue that we have global fascism masquerading as democracy to keep us all calm and obedient.

    • searching June 18, 2012 at 3:40 am #

      there is no need for global fascism to keep people calm and obedient.
      Believing in that kind of idiotic articles is enough to keep people calm, stupid, confused and obedient.

  3. who_me June 17, 2012 at 8:38 pm #

    that’s a great list. 9 & 10 are the strongest aspects of fascism. the control of 9 over 10 is the main reason for fascism being created.

    • searching June 18, 2012 at 3:42 am #

      you have no idea what fascism is about.

  4. Deadbeat June 17, 2012 at 10:56 pm #

    When fascism comes to America it’ll be a reaction to Zionism.

    • who_me June 17, 2012 at 11:11 pm #

      when?

      america being fascist (“proto-fascist” or in the sense the basics of corporate control of both government, business policies and the major media) made it easy for zionazis to take the country over. they only needed to initially replace the regular fascists with their own. once they controled the basic power structure, they simply altered the corporate propaganda lines to place their specific interests and policy goals on top of the existing fascist set up.

      • Deadbeat June 18, 2012 at 2:00 am #

        You wrote recently that Fascism and Christianity went hand-in-hand. Therefore Fascism was a reaction to Jewry’s domination of Christian Europe that arose out of WWI.

        Taking a look at Ariadna’s excellent response, what the Nazi developed and does not fit the definition that is being posited by this article. What exist in the USA today ergo is not Fascism.

        • who_me June 18, 2012 at 3:20 am #

          db

          “You wrote recently that Fascism and Christianity went hand-in-hand.”

          i did.

          “Therefore Fascism was a reaction to Jewry’s domination of Christian Europe that arose out of WWI.”

          no. fascism was a response to gains of the left. it is essentially modern capitalism – 20th-21st century. fascism is the descendants of 19th century robber barons taking their crap to the logical extemes they thought necessary to counter their loss of control to the dreaded reds. most jews were either not involved (like most people), or fascists (like bankers).

          german anti-jew fascism was rather different from that of italy or spain, and was based more upon hitler’s, and his crony’s, views, than anything else. in italy, the fascists were quite friendly with the jewish capitalist establishment and very supportive of the far right zionists in palestine. with the possible exception of ww2 germany, the current state of affairs in the west is directly connected to the melding of ziofascism with fascism of the established capitalist heirarchy. the opposition to “Jewry’s domination of Christian Europe” is that of a rival fascist block.

          us evil reds oppose them both.

        • searching June 18, 2012 at 3:44 am #

          Deadbeat,
          don’t forget that who_me is a satanist.
          He loves antyhing that attacks God, faith,and especially Christianity.

          • who_me June 18, 2012 at 5:33 am #

            searching

            “Deadbeat,
            don’t forget that who_me is a satanist.
            He loves antyhing that attacks God, faith,and especially Christianity.”

            you’ve no idea, searching. you probably assume i’m a “normal” satanist, but you don’t know the half of it. or the quarter. not even your worst soaking wet dream can you imagine the evil i represent.

  5. Ariadna Theokopoulos June 17, 2012 at 11:58 pm #

    If Fascism was the model for this definition of “fascism” then the list does not fit the Nazi fascism all that well, because religion played no significant part, if any in the 3rd Reich.
    The list looks like something LBS uses to help his incurious and lazy students at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, NY memorize “fascism.”
    It is a fact that ‘fascist’ is an adjective used for just about any authoritarian regime (see Iran). This piece does not say how many of these 14 criteria have to obtain to apply the ‘fascist’ label: all 14, more than 7?
    Junta dictatorships in South America, like Argentina, have been called fascist, although religion had no visible role there either.
    The Argentinos are among the least religious Catholics on the planet, like the Uruguayos who also had a ‘fascist’ junta installed by the CIA until the Tupamaros grabbed the CIA agent in charge that posed a diplomat by the short and curlies and forced the government to release all the political prisoners. The popular upheaval ended the dictatorship but the CIA agent sadly did not survive. (As a interesting footnote, one of those tupamaros is currently the President of the country…)

    I got curious to understand this inclusion of religion in the 14 points, unwarranted by many if not most examples, and found that LBS, other than teaching at Skidmore, where he is also Director of Campus Security, whatever that means, is a contributor to the organ of Council of Secular Humanism, called Free Inquiry, an interesting organization that militates against religion, on behalf of humanism. When they talk about ‘religion’ it is only Christian or Muslim. There must be no other …
    In fact Paul Kurtz, a frequent contributor (“Living without religion”) made a case that the war on Iraq was caused by one thing: Bush’s fundamentalism:
    “For six years, Americans really haven’t known why he launched the unnecessary Iraq attack. Official pretexts turned out to be baseless. Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction after all, and wasn’t in league with terrorists, as the White House alleged. Collapse of his asserted reasons led to speculation about hidden motives: Was the invasion loosed to gain control of Iraq’s oil—or to protect Israel—or to complete Bush’s father’s vendetta against the late dictator Saddam Hussein? Nobody ever found an answer.

    Now, added to the other suspicions, comes the goofy possibility that abstruse, supernatural, idiotic, laughable Bible prophecies were a factor. This casts an ominous pall over the needless war that has killed more than four thousand young Americans and cost U.S. taxpayers perhaps $1 trillion.”

    Another luminary of the organization, Susan Jacobi, explains that the problem with christianity in America today is that it is no longer fragmented enough:

    “When I was growing up in the fifties and sixties, almost no one in politics or everyday life went around proclaiming, “I am a Christian.” If indeed you were a Christian—that is, someone who considers Jesus Christ the Messiah—you identified yourself as a Lutheran, a Methodist, a Baptist, a Catholic
    Calling oneself a Christian today, by contrast, has a special, politicized meaning.”

    Needless to say, this organization is torn about the lack of human rights of the muslims:
    “Defaming Human Rights
    by Paul Kurtz

    We are deeply concerned with the changes to the Universal Declara tion of Human Rights by a coalition of Islamic states within the United Nations that wishes to prohibit any criticism of religion and would thus protect Islam’s limited view of human rights.

    In view of the conditions inside the Islamic Republic of Iran, Egypt, Paki stan, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, Syria, Bangladesh, Iraq, and Afghan istan, we should expect that at the top of their human rights agenda would be to rectify the legal inequality of women, the suppression of political dissent, the curtailment of free expression, the persecution of ethnic minorities and religious dissenters—in short, protecting their citizens from egregious human rights violations. Instead, they are worrying about protecting Islam. What is truly shocking is the new human rights council (so called) has rallied “the international community” to its side.”

    • who_me June 18, 2012 at 3:38 am #

      at

      “If Fascism was the model for this definition of “fascism” then the list does not fit the Nazi fascism all that well, because religion played no significant part, if any in the 3rd Reich.”

      that is actually not true. initially, the nazis used the 3k’s, kirche, kueche, kinder of previous german capitalist regimes. if you don’t know, kirche is deutsch for church. the nazis used the usual fascist mantra of god and country (like american republicans) to gain public support and continued using such slogans throughout their reign. a christian god was on the nazis side in both their early propaganda and their later propaganda. the buggered brass had their own mixed up beliefs, but nazism used a form of christianity throughout it’s reign to garner support popular support.

      like most ruling juntas, the haves are hypocrites.

      • who_me June 18, 2012 at 3:50 am #

        btw, at, are you a practicing christian?

        • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 1:02 pm #

          The only thing I try to practice is “Don’t do unto others..” although I admit I was tempted to suspend it with you a couple of times when I felt you were rude in a manner uncalled for. I forgive myself figuring it was Satan tempting me :-)
          I dislike fanaticism in all its forms: of the religious and of the militant atheists, who try to impose their views on the others.
          I am interested in religions, specifically in Comparative Religion, which reveals much about what is universal in human spirituality quests even in cultures that have had no communication with others:
          the myth of eternal return, the sacred and the profane, myths of sacrifice and regeneration, the symbolism of water (the flood), myths of renewal and yearly repetition of the creation, etc.

  6. Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 12:46 am #

    Another great illustration. I love that photograph.
    It has almost all the sacred American symbols to ward off evil: the flag, the cross and the soccer mom. I said ‘almost’ because in the other hand she should have held an apple pie, symbol of American bounty.
    American exorcism tools delivered with a smile sure to make the American Association of Orthodontists proud. Behind her a blurry glimpse of beautiful American nature. If we could see through the foliage, we, too, could probably see what she says she sees from her kitchen window: Russia. Bring it on, commies!

    • who_me June 18, 2012 at 2:06 am #

      “I said ‘almost’ because in the other hand she should have held an apple pie, symbol of American bounty.”

      odd how americans adopted the apple pie as something to symbolise “america” or anything special as relation to the country. apples, pies and apple pies were around a long time before europe’s defects and rejects decided to genocide the people of the americas and create their own dunghole. but there is one “food” americans created and i think symbolises what america is all about. here is a short video on that great american cullinary creation. enjoy:

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OjuerFdPWRQ

      towards the end of the video, when she mentions what the the great american cullinary creation is made from, one will see what i meant about how that particular “food” symbolises america, and americans in general. as the old saying goes:

      “you are what you eat…”

      :D

      • who_me June 18, 2012 at 2:58 am #

        a further observation on the great american cullinary creation. the sausage in various forms is known throughout the world. it’s generally a way to use up the least edible portions of the animals humans prey upon – the bits in that murky region between human food and the left overs one fed to the village dogs (another protein source, originally). what is interesting is that of all the various sausages, the american hot dog is the most blandly gross tasting of the lot. I’m sure some types taste worse – but i’ve yet to taste one, though. many sausages have spices and flavourings added to give to make them palatable. some even taste great because of this. this wasn’t done to the american hot dog.

        this leaves one wondering what happened. why did americans, probably new yorkers take a palatable food and convert it into something so disgusting?

        profit.

        the prime motivation of the american. they worship profit more than life itself. even someone else’s profit at their own expense: “i can one day sod my neighbour over the same way and get rich like he is” is the national american mantra about community spirit. in fact americans worship profit so much, they are more than happy to eat buttholes, because those cooked buttholes in a tube represent the american way and the potential for all americans “to make it big”.

        there is another aspect. in america, quality isn’t necessary. americans like bland. they prefer it, in fact. to an american, things like food that has flavour is frightening. america is the ultimate conformist society, where everything must be bland to keep the country bland.

        another thing about this great american cullinary creation is who, or what invented it. i have not researched its history, but i have my suspicions. the ultimate cooked butthole tube is reputed to be:

        http://www.underconsideration.com/brandnew/archives/hebrew_national_logo.jpg

        the symbolism with modern jewish zionist dominated america, and the sort of attitude these people have towards non-special americans, is unmistakeable. as golda meir famously said, when queried about her american charges:

        “let them eat hot dogs”.

        ;D

        • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 3:55 am #

          Funny but not true. The hot dog is neither an American nor a jewish invention but it’s true that the American hot dogs are worse than any other. Many Americans may think the hot dogs are a Jewish invention for two reasons: the brands that took over are Jewish (Nathans’ and Oscar Meyer) and the horrible sideline of kosher all-beef hot dogs.

          Americans also believe that the jews invented rye bread, borscht, and dill pickles (popular among the jews that came from Russia and Poland) and the bagel (from southern Germany and Austria).
          Not surprisingly, if you talk to Israelis they will tell you that they invented hummus (makes the Palestinians roll their eyes).
          Funny but also not true that Americans like bland foods–Texmex? Hot barbecue sauce? Jambalaya?
          There was a time when there was nothing wrong with simple American fare like a good Kansas steak, but now with what’s being injected into the cows, not so much. There was a time when you could do worse than eat 1/2 oysters and shrimp cassoulet in New Orleans, but now, who knows what comes out of that poisoned Gulf?
          There was a time…

          • who_me June 18, 2012 at 4:00 am #

            “Funny but not true. The hot dog is neither an American nor a jewish invention but it’s true that the American hot dogs are worse than any other.”

            who, or what, invented hot dogs, then? not sausages, btw, i already covered that.

          • who_me June 18, 2012 at 4:08 am #

            “Funny but also not true that Americans like bland foods”

            they do. things like tex-mex are considered ethnic foods or niche foods. the american still prefers her cooked buttholes in a tube (hot dog), his unspiced steak and her unspiced hamburger. things have changed since i was a kid, food with flavour is now readily available in most american regions, but the most popular american foods still remain the most bland crap imaginable.

          • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 4:17 am #

            “things like tex-mex are considered ethnic foods or niche foods.”

            Maybe if you love in Omaha. Or Dubuque. Or in Wyoming.
            Mexican food is already “all American” pretty much all over the country. The dreaded Taco Bells.
            A sort of comprehensive Montezuma revenge.
            It is Americanized in the sense that it BAD everywhere except in New Mexico, esp Santa Fe.

          • who_me June 18, 2012 at 4:54 am #

            “Maybe if you love in Omaha. Or Dubuque. Or in Wyoming.
            Mexican food is already “all American” pretty much all over the country. The dreaded Taco Bells.
            A sort of comprehensive Montezuma revenge.
            It is Americanized in the sense that it BAD everywhere except in New Mexico, esp Santa Fe.”

            i grew up eating mexican and italian dishes and later, i was blown away that people thought these were, like, spicy. :D

            it’s interesting how the southern and northern halves of the usa mimick south and north europe in their tastes.

          • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 4:12 am #

            Austrians.
            That’s why the Americans called them Wieners–from Wien (Viena). You can still have excellent hot dogs there (crisp, breaking with an audible snap), far better even in the train station in Viena than anywhere in NYC.

          • who_me June 18, 2012 at 4:19 am #

            “That’s why the Americans called them Wieners–from Wien (Viena).’

            ah, the origin of those little vienna sausages. americans, in their self-decepting hubris, made them longer. :D

            “far better even in the train station in Viena than anywhere in NYC.”

            everything is better elsewhere than in nyc. that’s a given.

            thanks for the info :)

          • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 19, 2012 at 3:01 am #

            OOPs!
            From todays’s Haratez. I didnt know that ConAgra was the same as Hebrew National. At any rate, kosher, shmosher, they do what’s cheaper and thus more profitable:

            “A lawsuit has been filed against Hebrew National, alleging that its hot dogs and other products are not actually kosher.

            The class action lawsuit, filed in May, accuses ConAgra Foods – the business designation of Hebrew National, which is certified kosher by Triangle K, of several transactions which would render the meat being processed as not kosher. It also accuses the company of mistreating its employees, especially its kosher supervisors and slaughterers. The AER firm provides the kosher slaughtering services at Hebrew National facilities in the Midwest

            The lawsuit was filed in the Dakota County district court of Minnesota.

            The lawsuit alleges that employees who complained about the inappropriate actions were fired or transferred.

            Among the complaints is that non-kosher meat was packaged and labeled as kosher meat.

            Shlomoh Ben-David, the owner of AER Services, Inc. denied the charges in an interview with The Failed Messiah website.

          • fool me once... June 19, 2012 at 7:52 am #

            “At any rate, kosher, shmosher, they do what’s cheaper and thus more profitable:”
            Is there any need for this sick shit? :(
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARsWQAb0QyY&feature=fvwrel

  7. searching June 18, 2012 at 1:05 am #

    Was this idotic article written by some marxist’s Zionist??
    What a bunch of a looney crap.
    I can not belive that any smart person would buy it.
    But I know that many people will.
    Who decide on putting here this pitiful list??
    You are really lowering your standards.
    This is such a bs that is even hard to discuss.

    • Deadbeat June 18, 2012 at 2:42 am #

      Was this idotic article written by some marxist’s Zionist??

      It is a bunch of stereotypical Hollywood-type propaganda designed to constantly distort and deflect real analysis of Fascism and especially that of Germany of the 1930’s

      After reading and listening to videos that present Germany in a “balanced” manner, you come to realize these kinds of articles are designed to keep people ignorant of the truth and rational analysis.

      • searching June 18, 2012 at 3:36 am #

        I do not know what is the goal of placing that kind of imbecile-level article on the deliberation.
        It is not “food for thought”, it is a “food that makes you to throw up”. That kind of crappy, cheap leftist propaganda article deserves to be on MSMedia bit not on a so called independent Media.
        I am unpleasantly surprised by shoving that kind of lame ,full of lies, manipulated propagandists article in people’s mouths.
        Did they copy it from some kind of
        “Israel’s daily deep food for thought” newspaper, or from “Bolshevic style communism as the only hope for our civilisation” magazine”???

  8. searching June 18, 2012 at 1:13 am #

    “Rampant Sexism
    The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy”
    You really do not kmwo here, which road to choose. This crappy article, and those who support it show how manipulaated, brainelss, people in the West has became. The will deserve whatever awaits them.

    • Deadbeat June 18, 2012 at 2:45 am #

      What crap! And in the “mens’ place you get women like Hillary Clinton, Susan Rice, Madeline Albright, Dianne Finestein, and Gloria Steinum.

      • Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 3:36 am #

        I can see that you are a sexist by the way in which you shorten the list to deprive other similar women of their merits:
        Condoleeza Rice, Barbara Boxer, Elena Kagan, Ileana Ross-Lehtinen

      • searching June 18, 2012 at 3:55 am #

        “Rampant Sexism
        The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy”
        ………………………..
        And in NO fascist regimes we have a rampant abortion, gay’s marriages and gays adopting children, gays with special rights and privelages, transexualists, pedofiles being baby sitters and school teachers,
        women like Hilary Clinton and Susan Rice being a great role models of feminity for any , average woman. In NO fascist regimes we have communists, socialists , liberals ruling because, of course, communism ,after killing 100+ millions of people in 20 century, is still viewed as a great system , desired by many as a ultimate heaven on earth, a great alterantive to facism.
        ..

        For goodnes sake , what kind of b.s. are you giving us here.??????

        • who_me June 18, 2012 at 5:51 am #

          searching

          you seem stressed.

          if the rabbi is busy, there are other ways…

          :D

  9. who_me June 18, 2012 at 5:44 am #

    one can argue if fascism is hitler, mussolini, peres, rockefeller, stalin, rotheschild, churchill or some turd selling soup, but the essential premis of this sort of government is a small specially self-selected group lording power over every one else.

    # 9 is the esssential prerequisit. the rest on the characteristics are tools used by the sods to make it happen.

  10. Ariadna Theokopoulos June 18, 2012 at 1:09 pm #

    #5 is interesting too: the author appears to have realized that if he only said “sexism” he would have been rebutted on the grounds that all societies have been (and still are) male-dominated, except that of the Amazons, the mythical women who cut one breast to accommodate the bow slung over one shoulder, fought like lions and used men only for procreation after which they disposed of them like black widows…
    So he added the qualifier “rampant”. So, according to him, to qualify as fascist a society’s sexism needs to be “rampant”–but he doesn’t describe the sexism that is not garden variety but rampant.

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